In the implementation of this project will be build a virtual power station consisting of several photovoltaic farm and wind power plants located in different places. Such a power plant will be able to ensure power control made from zero to the maximum value of the additive. The photovoltaic and wind sources are characterized by the changes of generated power depended on weather conditions and difficult to predict, which is a big problem for operators in the distribution companies. Maintain generation at a constant level-it is a difficult task. The solution proposed in this project goes further and provides the ability for any dynamic power adjustment.
Control of generation can follow load variations or even to balance generation of the other unstable sources.
The system of the virtual power plant assumes that all its constituent sources are connected to the same network (e.g., in the same area). The level of generated power is partly naturally compensated due to area scattering of the atmospheric factors (e.g., the cloud), the rest of the required balancing is provided by the energy store. Energy store (batteries) allows not only the balancing of sags and surges in the level generation (resulting from weather conditions), but also the regulation of power losses in the network. The power electronic converters can also serve as a source of reactive power with full range of regulation. A standard photovoltaic system generally do not produce reactive power. The designed power plant will be connected to the national grid, and beyond normal job, as an energy source can provide ancillary services for the distribution system operator.
In the national energy system, electricity production in power plants needs at any given time to be adapted to the current consumption of this energy. Changes in the level of production in standard renewable sources (eg. solar and wind) produce the need to maintain a quickly-available reserves in the classical power plants. Due to the economics of production, and long start-up time from cold state after disconnecting power plant classical (and also nuclear), only a small, fixed amount of power can be booked for regulatory purposes. In most of the EU countries is already installed such a number of sources, depending on force majeure that has been used all existing balancing possibilities. Currently, the most common cause of denial of concession for a wind power plant or photovoltaic plant is the inability to balance their work. Applied in this project, the configuration of a virtual power plant will allow even balancing other unstable sources of energy.
The innovation of the proposed solution is the use of the balancing process of the fact, that the location of individual farm photovoltaic and wind generators are distended from each other. The analysis of weather phenomena has shown that the temporary failures of wind and sunlight are mild, and occur at different times in different places.
The use of these phenomena will reduce the capacity of the energy store. A typical goal of regulation of the power generated by the power plant is not reaching a constant value, but to keep up with the load changes in the places of connection of power plants. Thus is expected, low generation in the night and big in the morning and afternoon. The most cumbersome are short-term power drops, for example caused by the clouds. The farm's photovoltaic modules are located at a distance of several kilometres or a few tens of kilometres what will naturally eliminate this problem. The plants work on the same network and will not cause flows in networks with higher voltages.
The technology and method of management of generation by combining in a virtual power plant with energy reserves can be used in other regions to manage existing sources, existing or planned to launch. The virtual power plant may also include the management of other small, scattered, conventional sources of energy. Economic analysis and technical study clearly confirmed that the result of the project – a virtual power plant will solve the problem of balancing, regulating power and power reserves. Energy storage in recent years enjoys a growing interest from operators of power networks, as well as energy producers. Many power grid companies are conducting research to solve the problem of energy storing. There is a large market demand for efficient technological solutions for energy storage. The solution of this project is based on several distributed sources, organized into a virtual power station.
It can also achieve the same effects by reducing the volume (and cost) of energy storage. The proposed solution is applicable for small systems and for installations with a capacity of several tens of megawatts. The technology of virtual power can also connect owners of small systems with photovoltaic panels on the roofs of their businesses and houses, or small wind generators. Own storage of energy allows ordering a smaller volume of installed power (maximum power consumption) and reduced monthly fees for capacity reservation. An important element in determining the position on the market is the cost of the proposed solutions. The market is looking for budget solutions. Developed technology based on batteries, due to their mass production will be characterized by lower investment cost and operating costs.
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